Short answer: Likely.
Longer answer: That depends on what you’re doing in MATLAB. I haven’t used it but I understand it to be rather robust, and contains a lot of specialized functions which I don’t know if dynamo supports yet.
If you are ambitious enough, willing to put on enough time and effort, and know enough coding in Python or other accessible language than sure.
If you want something with 33 years of testing and already developed toolsets to replace a tool you have been using for awhile… maybe not today.